Lethal Pressure Crush Rabbit
In our study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of Compound S, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, in acute lethal CS. Compound S is a multiple-component traditional Chinese medicine preparation, which has been shown to be effective for treating CS successfully. Based on this experimental evidence, we hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Compound S in CS are due to its ability to improve the following parameters: (1) increase the survival rate, (2) improve hemodynamics, (3) inhibit rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric nephropathy, and (4) inhibit oxidative stress. The goal of this study is to determine the therapeutic effects of Compound S in acute lethal CS 6 .
lethal pressure crush rabbit
All experiments were performed with male adult New Zealand rabbits weighing 2-3 kg. Compound S was administered orally to each rabbit in dose of 20 mg/kg. Compound S was dissolved in distilled water. A vehicle group and a tetracycline group were included in all experiments to compare the effect of Compound S on CS 6 . The control group received normal saline (i.p., 1 mL/kg) without any pre-administration of Compound S. Anesthesia was induced by tiletamine-zolazepam (6.6 mg/kg, i.m.) and maintained with 1.8% isoflurane in O2 (5 L/min) delivered through a nose-cone. The animal temperature was maintained at 36.0-37.0 using heating pads. The lateral popliteal vein and the left common carotid artery were exposed at the midline of the neck region and were then clamped by a small vascular clamp. Then, the vascular clamp was removed from each site. Compression was maintained at 50 kPa (5 mmHg) for 10 min and then released. At 30 min of compression, blood was taken from the common carotid artery. The samples were centrifuged (10,000g, 10 min) to obtain sera. Serum levels of creatine kinase, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, K+ and H2O2 were determined by standard autoanalyser (RX-7, HUMAN, Japan). TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 in the sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Diaclone, France). TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 in the compressed muscle were measured by Western blotting (Abcam). A rhabdomyolysis marker M-creatine kinase (M-CK) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (M-CK, Beijing, China). The survival rate and the levels of serum M-CK and kidney tissue IL-6 were determined immediately after decompression (0 h). For evaluation of its therapeutic effects, Compound S was administered once a day for 3 days before decompression. Then, the survival rate and the levels of serum M-CK and kidney tissue IL-6 were determined 0, 3, 12, 24 h after decompression (0 h, 3 h, 12 h, 24 h). The effect of Compound S on the mortality rate was evaluated at 12 h after decompression.